This is the central site for a long-term project to research, examine, and respond to the radical collective of writers, theorists, architects, and visual artists who operated in Paris between 1829 and 1835 under the names of the Jeunes France & the Bouzingo, and through them to build a critical understanding of French Romanticist subculture through the historical lens of a continuing politically vigilant Anglophone avant-garde.

About the Project

  • Olchar E. Lindsann (Roanoke, VA) - Project coordination, Historical research/writing/commentary, Website, Archive , Publication, Translation Versification (Borel, O'Neddy, Nerval, etc.)   CONTACT
  • Joseph Carter (Montreal) - Translation (Borel, O'Neddy)
  • Jonah Durning-Hammond (New York) - Translation (Dondey/O'Neddy)
  • Raymond E. André III (San Jose, CA) - Translation & Research (Borel, etc.)
  • John Thursday (Roanoke, VA) - Research & Writing. (The Devéria brothers)
  • Talia Felix (California) - Translation & Research (Bouchardy)
  • Wilheim Katastrof (New Brunswick, NJ) - Translation & Research (Sand, Hugo, etc.)
  • John M. Bennett (Columbus, OH) - Translation, Anti-Translation (Bertrand, etc.) & Dissemination (Eternal Network)
    Jim Leftwich (Roanoke, VA) - Anti-Translation (Bertrand, O'Neddy, Borel, etc.) & Dissemination (Eternal Network)
  • Mark Bloch (New York) - Discourse & Dissemination.
  • Inger Sheil (Sydney, Australia) - Research & Discourse (Hugo, etc.)
  • Gleb Kolomiets (Smolensk, Russia) - Research & Translation (Russian historiography)
  • Tim Campbell (New York) - Research & Discourse
  • Tim Gaze (Australia) - Research & Writing (Occult connections)
  • Rebecca Weeks (Penzance, Cornwall) - Discourse
  • Jerome Fletcher (Bristol, UK) - Advisory
by Olchar E. Lindsann

What is this historical 'Project'? What are its goals and functions, and what its eventual form?

The broadest answer might be: to discover for Anglophone communities who this group was, what their context was, and how they operated within it, in such a way as to spur contemporary marginal communities to radical ways of working and to offer another framework for devising strategies to do so. 

I might add: to explore how the (re)making of history can also be a way of forming, expanding, mixing, and interrogating our own contemporary communities independently of Academic or Capitalist frameworks of knowledge and action. Let us not forget that the collective, ethically-motivated, and semi-coordinated rediscovery and reconsideration of the Roman-esque Middle Ages by historians, novelists, painters, poets, and bibliophiles was key to the formation of the Romanticist community itself.

I might also add: to do so before the academies get to it: here is a rare opportunity to introduce this group to radical communities in a way that emerges from and speaks to those communities, before it becomes depoliticized, aestheticized, and domesticated by the Capitalist pedagogical machine. Much of the Bouzingos' work addresses the obscurity to which they have willingly consigned themselves, and their adherence to a small and intense community, working within an obscure and disreputable tradition. They began to see radicalized poetics in terms of the cultivation of an experimental utopian community that is marginal on principle, rather than a struggle to become the dominant official ideology or cultural model. It seems likely that much or most of the group would have preferred that the rediscovery they had so cunningly engineered take place in micropress, among the tiny and mingling radical communities that are their direct descendants, perpetrated collectively by people connected through direct human friendships, than that they appear in a university edition, translated by a bourgeois academic, professionally produced and appropriately de-fanged and made respectable for the Literature (or worse, art) departments and the shelves at Barnes & Noble. Thus the importance of this project being taken on in the current form before academia renders it 'merely literature'.

The project has been launched nominally under the aegis of mOnocle-Lash Anti-Press because it offers the best and most grounded infrastructure currently available to me as I set out, and because it is embedded in the particular marginal/ dissenting communities with whom I am currently working. Ideally, as the project grows--a process I expect to take decades--this network of communities will grow, in large part as a result of the process of meeting and collaborating through the mutual discovery and interpretation of this and related groups. It is my hope that not only other individuals but other presses, communities, groups, labels, journals, and websites will also become involved. To call this 'a project' is not to position it as something which subsumes or encompasses individual research or other similar projects, but merely signifies a collective effort and a collective awareness of that effort's implications, and the consequent need to share resources, coordinate research, and to mutually discuss and support every facet of the introduction of the group into contemporary avant-garde, political,  historical, and theoretical discourse.

I see the function of the project--let me say my function as I attempt to get it going--to be firstly, a catalyst for concerted attention in this area from a variety of standpoints, i.e. assembling people; secondly, to coordinate the research, translation, collation, interpretation, etc. that I hope will be done from a number of quarters, and make the fruits of this labour easily accessible to everybody involved with particular aspects of it; thirdly, to carry out to the best of my ability those aspects which either I am particularly qualified for (most especially pertaining to the history of the 19th and early 20th Century avant-gardes and the social and psychological methodologies which they explored) and those which simply need some work carried out by someone in order to contextualise everything else. All of these functions will change and grow as things progress, particularly the last.

As a minimum eventual goal, I would foresee chapbook-length (at least) translations of work or sets of reproductions of images by everyone associated with the group; a large anthology encompassing the same along with commentary; and whether in that or a separate volume, a full-length critical history and analysis of the group, its activities, and the socio-political context and communities from which it emerged. More importantly, an awareness of the group and its strategies in a range of contemporary contexts, such that these and other tangible productions emerging from the project can serve as a foundation of further analysis, discussion, and debate that in turn will enrich and provoke contemporary and future undertakings.

     Where there's a Will, there is a Way;
     Right now the Will outweighs the Way.

There is virtually no part of this project which is not problematic from the outset; indeed this is to a certain extent inherent in its goals. The problem that the project intends to address is that English-speaking radical communities which have something to learn from this group and its epoch do not have the ability to do so, precisely because we are Anglophone. Almost nothing has been translated. The fact that I am concerned here with radical communities, whether operating on avant-garde or straightforward activist models, means also that very few of us (myself included) have access to academic infrastructures that would help to ameliorate this hurdle in attempting to conduct our own research. 

This site is very much a work-in-progress and as such wears these problematics and the resulting inadequacies on its surface, just as I hope that it wears the potential scope of its eventual form. If the links all tend to refer to wikipedia, this is representative of the stage of research at which we find ourselves. At present they serve as invitations for further research, and for markers that can help us to imagine the shape of our eventual understanding.

The challenges we must contend with:
  •  Point of Departure: This project is initiated by people within the English-speaking avant-garde. Our current field of expertise is much narrower than required in order to fully contextualise the group's activity. 
  • Translation:  So far there are only a couple people working on translation of texts by the Bouzingo, and only a few scattered pieces by most of those involved already translated. Translating poetry introduces additional technical problems; while translation of most research texts is simply not feasible.
  • Dissemination: This project will take decades to develop fully and years to reach a basic level of comprehensibility. In the meantime ongoing research needs to be shared and cross-checked both by fellow researchers and the broader communities that we collectively interact with. 
  • Research: Most historical research is being done at the moment by me, and I do not read French. I am not affiliated with any academic institution, which further closes off resources. Also, refer to 'Point of Departure'.
  • Historiography: Once done, how is research to be collected into 'histories' and presented, interpreted? By whom, for whom? What languages and points of reference will it employ? With an eye toward what political orientations and applicabilities? 

In initiating this project, I begin from a position of relative ignorance; my frustration in attempting to engage and evaluate the strategies of the Bouzingo led directly to my realisation that something needed to be done. This determination is thus inseparable from my own inability to fulfill it. My current network can fill in a few of these gaps; not most of them. Our collective ability to build a comprehensive understanding will grow as our collaborators and associated networks expand.

The group straddled a number of complexly-related but very different realms--avant-garde action, radical politics and activism, (popular) gothic fiction, utopian experimentation--and worked in a wide range of disciplines, not only the obvious literature and painting but historiography, theology, translation (how pertinent!), publishing, theatrical production, etc. My own background is in the politicized avant-garde, and the networks with which I am most heavily engaged share this focus. Even within the avant-garde, there is no universal knowledge or understanding of 19th Century models or the ways in which they influenced and evolved into the "Classic Avant-garde", and extremely few have bothered to investigate the social and non-artistic aspects of the avant-garde previous to the 1870s. Indeed, it is only in the past 20 or 30 years that the notion of the avant-garde as essentially extra-artistic, as a utopian rather than aesthetic phenomenon, has re-emerged--and this position remains a very small minority. There is little to build on in this area, at least in English.

 And this is only one aspect of what the Jeunes-France were up to, only one context in which they operated. I and others contributing to the project have experience with historical research and historiographic positioning, and some familiarity with other pertinent areas of study--socialist and anarchist theory, mysticism, gothic fiction, etc.--but are not expert in these areas, having come at them through other fields. 

This historical project is coming from communities who are descendants of the Bouzingo in our modes of activity and our relationships to economic and academic structures. This means that we are all volunteers, we are all involved with multiple simultaneous undertakings, we are all low on resources, and must begin with what we have and who we know. Over time, we will accrue and share resources, and expand our circle of collaborators. Essential to forming a comprehensive understanding of the group and its strategies will be contributions from people with more thorough and nuanced understandings of a broad range of areas of knowledge and activity, more familiarity with their discourses, literatures, traditions, and methods of research.

And people who can read French.

Trying to understand the Jeunes-France without having actually read their work is reckless in the extreme, and leads to the uncritical 'these guys were CRAAAAZY bohemian hipster dudes from the olden-times' descriptions of them that pepper various popular-academic histories in English and are worse than useless for evaluating them as a complex group navigating an even more complex and fluid cultural and political situation. Yet very little is translated aside from a few scattered poems or stories in anthologies. The exceptions are Gautier and Nerval, but even their earlier and most pertinent work--Nerval's National Elegies of 1827 for instance, and Gautier's novella The Jeunes-France, remain untranslated or are available only in 100-year old editions that are pricey and hard to come by. I intend to learn French eventually, but this will yield tangible results only slowly.

Given the conditions outlined in the previous section, the translation process is bound to be slow. There are only three or four people working on them right now, everyone busy with other projects as well, with varying degrees of familiarity with French and with the literary conventions that the Bouzingo writers were working through. My own background compels me to consider it imperative that translation of verse retain its nature as verse--in these cases, metric and rhymed--to the furthest extent possible. People do not use such difficult forms of writing without reason, especially when engaged in social and political activity so seemingly at odds with it. Competent versification requires exponentially more time to render than clunky, merely semantic transliteration. Thus, although the translations have so far all been composed to scan as verse, we shall be moving toward a two-tiered system, producing bare transliterations to facilitate research and gesture toward the group's poetic practice, while gradually producing more comprehensive and sensitive translations to fill out our understanding and appreciation of their literary activity.

These, moreover, are not the only hurdles facing us. The issue of translation deeply affects historical research as well, since most of the (already few) condensed scholarly sources for information on the group are not available in English; even the decidedly provisional information available on wikipedia and various other online sources are largely only in French, and nobody has the kind of time to translate all of this material simply in order that I or other researchers can evaluate it. More on this below.

All of the above means that historical/contextual research will inevitably proceed much faster than translation of the texts themselves, and also that this research will be full of holes and distortions that, without French resources, we will not even be able to identify. Indeed this is no doubt the case already. On the one hand both of these conditions make it unwise, if not impossible, to begin preparing a book or anything that could make the group's activity easily accessible to a broader group of people. On the other hand, much is already emerging that could be useful (even, in fact, if our conceptions later need to be revised) and which ought to be shared with those interested in what is being brought to light. Furthermore, it is imperative that people who are working on translation/research/interpretation have access to all of the potential connections that might lie latent in the material they are working with.  And lastly, if the project is to be an experiment in communal historiography, the creation of history from a space f community, the process itself must be transparent and open for intervention and inflection. This website, which is easily revised and updated, and easily linked to pertinent sources for potential further research, is my answer to this initial and provisional phase of the project--one likely to last several years. 

As discussed above, the primary challenges in research so far are A.) The breadth of study that is called for, versus my own background; and B.) The fact that the best sources on the Jeunes-France/ Bouzingo themselves, and most of the contextualizing sources on the internet, are in French.
At the moment, I am responsible for 90% of the research indicated (or not yet indicated) on this site, and am fully qualified in perhaps 10%. Consequently, the bulk of my research for the next several years, unless contributions from others change the landscape and ease the process, will be geared toward acquiring an adequate groundwork in the general context: understanding French history before and during the July Monarchy, the complex networks of radical, socialist, anarchist, utopian, and liberal political groups operating at the time, and becoming conversant with as much French Romanticist and Gothic literature and theory (along with some Classicist etc.) as I can find in English translation. 

For this reason, most of the links from the site send you to wikipedia, which is also a main source for the biographies and topical essays that I will be gradually adding to the site. By no means is this my intellectual ideal. At one point this will not be the case; as it is, this merely indicates the early stage that the project is in. Many of these links, moreover, are to French wikipedia, which is the only source for many individuals and groups, and much fuller for others. When using research materials in French I have had to make recourse to Google's translate engine. Again, not my ideal. This has no doubt already led to certain distortions or mistakes in the material presented; before anything is published I will run the pertinent sections by people capable of checking my interpretations, and will adjust accordingly; but at this early stage of research I cannot impose upon these very few and very busy  people with every scrap of digital text that I hope might have some bearing. 

Citation in general on the site right now is far below the standard that any published material will be, due to the sheer amount of information I am processing, the volume of material that I am trying to indicate relationships between for use by others, the extremely scattered nature of small bits and pieces of often conflicting and vague information, and the rapidly changing nature of the picture this information presents. The job of citation will occur, at the latest, concurrently with the eventual preparation of publishing and other such projects.

There is one other condition to be eventually overcome: I do not work for a University. This being the case, I am barred from access to most academic journals, which tend to charge prices I simply cannot afford in order to access articles unless one is paid by an Institution. This has greatly retarded my progress so far, though I hope to ingratiate myself into one or two institutional libraries in order to gain access. Or perhaps will one day get a job teaching English Composition.

The first historiographic question presenting itself is of a standard type: From what ideological standpoint, and for what contemporary contexts and purposes, is information to be gathered, collated, integrated, presented, and contextualised? The issue is complicated by the projected collective nature of the endeavour: these orientations will depend upon who is doing the research, the writing, the collecting, the interpretation. I can speak for myself regarding the specific jobs I will take on, and my role in initiating the project and upkeeping this website (to which I welcome contributions and criticisms).

My interest in the Bouzingo is in its status as a radical experiment in collective organisation, of micro-utopia: one which straddled radical activism and cultural work, popular subculture and intellectual rarification, and which developed modes of social relations that amounted to group psychological experiment, and attempted to respond in a self-conscious and ethical way to the complex relationships between Capital and cultural production when these relationships were in their infancy. This is the spectre of the Bouzingo that has seemed hinted at and which I am trying to discover, as it were. This conception may need to be altered, broadened, in some cases debunked as we progress; certainly it will entail criticism of their methods and stances as well as enthusiasm. Everyone who contributes to the project with bring with them their own orientations and ideas of the group and its significance, and genuine discourse about the group will benefit from an exchange of different viewpoints and analyses.

It is for the communities engaged in the project that I would like to see it take form; far too often dissenting communities--creative, political, philosophical--have consumed their own histories and pre-histories only after they have been passed through the Bourgeois academic system. They may then rediscover and amend these histories but it remains at best a detourne of mainstream histories and of mainstream historiography. The obscurity to which this group has fallen provides an opportunity for us to write our own histories of them for ourselves and for each other. Its prerogatives must be the prerogatives of these communities and discourses.

From what I can gather via Google Translate, the Romanticist historians and novelists (many moved fluidly between the two modes, including Augustus MacKeat himself) who were engaged in the re-evaluation of Medieval culture that was so central to French Romanticism seem generally to have been accurate as to their material, while motivated in the presentation of that material to frame it in ways that were determined to make it useful in the political situation of their own time, fashioning from it a cultural weapon to wield against the current Monarchist power and the encroaching Bourgeois power, using the material as a way to present alternatives to the habits of thought that helped to prop up the current form of Power.

In the material here, I have introduced a number of anachronisms into my vocabulary, on the principle that it will help to tease out potential resonances with contemporary modes of praxis, discourse, and modes of activity that might otherwise lose their immediacy in language no longer current in communities that I see as their contemporary analogues. Such vocabulary includes 'collective' 'socialist', 'commune', 'anarchist', 'co-op', 'Left', 'Right', and 'avant-garde' (though the word is used tin relation to Romanticism in an 1883 anthology including several of the Bouzingo). Some of these words are more recent coinages, others have become solidified in their meaning only after the period in question. The same strategy has been applied to syntax and the construction of arguments. I have tended to use 'Romanticist' rather than 'Romantic', largely due to the proliferation of inappropriate associations that have accrued to the more familiar 'romantic' in the intervening 150 years, and recognising the self-conscious movement that Romanticism represented in France much more than it did in England and many other places.

The second, related historiographic issue that the project presents is more specific to the way in which it is coming about: in a situation where (as indicated above under all other headings) the sharing and presentation of material is occurring simultaneously with research, while any conclusions about the implications, connections, and even accuracy of the historical material is provisional and in flux, how will that provisional presentation be oriented?

My answer to the practical side of this question has so far been to allow, in the website at least, a certain amount of inference, in some cases admittedly verging on speculation. When so little evidence is available (and even less accessible) circumstantial evidence must, I have concluded, be allowed.  Only in this way can the history in the course of its construction be rendered useful in the meantime.  As other contributors become involved, their own perspectives will determine the nature of this issue. In determining what weight to give what inferences, I have of course considered first the strength, sources, etc. of the evidence itself, secondly the prerogatives described above, and thirdly the following:

 When a group or individual, like the Bouzingo, is active both in the realm of political subversion/psychosocial experimentation/public performance/intervention on the one hand, and in the production of texts, paintings, etc and the discourse surrounding them, there is a tendency for only one aspect (if that) to be seriously investigated. Either the texts are published and discussed as if created and disseminated in a social and personal vacuum, with only vague and secondary reference to their contexts ('oh, and when he was young he hung around with some forgotten bohemians'); or their exploits are told in conversational style and with complete disregard for the theoretical, political, and traditional underpinnings and corollaries to their behaviour ('These guys were WAAAAAAAY out there, man!'). It is my hope not only to avoid both of these pitfalls, but to discover and tease out how these apparently disparate realms of activity related to and inhered within one another.

In the case of the Jeunes-France, the latter is overwhelmingly the case; for this reason, I have tended to risk over-estimating their political involvement and the coherency of their thought, rather than risk underestimating it as has so often been done. There are wildly varying judgments as to the radicality, universality, depth, conviction, and coherence of their political involvement and few if any explanations for these judgments. I have not yet uncovered enough material to make any confident argument on the matter, but I have found considerably stronger evidence than I had expected setting out of genuine conviction and involvement with Saint-Simonism, Fourierism, and Militant Republicanism, as reflected in the Timeline and the Biographies completed so far. As I have stated, this website represents a provisional state; and it is better for the communities in question that a hyper-political impression of the group precede any eventual amendments, than that an innocuous impression require resuscitation; the academies could have done the latter for us.


There is no definite time-table for the project; Everyone involved is busy with far more things than they really ought to be doing, and consider it a given that things must move along at a pace that is manageable for everyone involved, and which does not require a definite commitment in terms of quantity or time. I hope to keep chapbooks on individual members coming out  from mOnocle-Lash at a steady enough pace to feel a momentum--at least one or two a year--but I doubt that that the project as a whole will see completion in less than five years (at the least). We'll see.

We start with this first chapbook, which opens the series with a kind of overview of the group--a bit of work by everyone involved, and a general introduction/history of the group.

After this, one chapbook at a time, each dedicated to one member of the group. Each book will have up to 50 pages, depending on how much work has survived, and will include a critical biography, translations of texts / reproductions of images with both translators' and historical notes, bibliography, and possibly dedications/responses/illustrations by people working in communities concerned with the project.

When everyone involved directly with the Bouzingo has been treated, work will begin on a massive, perfect-bound volume which will compile all of the translations, images, bios, etc and add more, with expanded histories, notes and bibliographies, a number of essays examining various aspects of the group's structure, dynamics, strategies, and legacy, and whatever responses, essays, transductions, etc. any of us living people want to add.

My hope is that these undertakings will be contextualised and supplemented by other  related projects taken on by whomever finds some facet of the project intriguing enough to follow up, and made available through mOnocle-Lash or other presses and venues--whatever works. Just so things become accessible.

Laying the Foundations: Regions of Future Research

It's one thing to conduct research; another thing to analyze, interpret, mentally collate and extrapolate that research; and yet another to bring the fruits of that process into a comprehensive form.

For this project, I shall try to do so through a series of targeted feature posts or mini-essays, which will gradually mark out the terrain which will be explored in greater depth, precision, or detail later on.

This will happen slowly; to give at least a glimpse of the picture of the Bouzingo/Jeunes-France, the ways in which they operated, and the broader Romanticist community, network, or subculture of which they were a node early on, I'm posting a list indicating what those topics are likely to be dealt with.

The completion of these will occur in the time and order that circumstances dictate. If there is anything below that somebody finds particularly intriguing or pertinent to research/translation/etc. that you are involved in, let me know and I'll probably turn my attention there next.

I also encourage any writings coming from those of you doing independent research or translation--just let me know and I'll send you an admin invite so you can post.

Look forward to features on:
Friends, Collaborators, & Broader Romanticist Community of the Bouzingo
Charles Asselineau--Romanticist Archivist
Charles la Battut--Dandy/Organizer/Devisor of practical jokes
Pierre-Jean Béranger--Writer of subversive songs
Hector Berlioz--Composer/Conductor/Writer
Roger de Beauvoir--Dandy/Writer
André Borel--Writer
Francisque Borel--Leftist Romanticist Publisher
Nicolas Brazier--Writer of Subversive Songs
François Chateaubriand--Writer/Politician
Émile Debraux--Subversive Songwriter/Publisher
Eugéne Deligny--Playwright/Novelist
??? Dondey--Publisher
??? Dupré--Publisher
Évariste-Desiré de Forges de Parny--Subversive Songwriter
Xavier Forneret--Writer, possibly member of the Jeunes France
Charles Fourier--Socialist Utopian Theoist & agitator
Graziano--Romanticist Tavern-keeper
'La Mapah' Ganneau--Mystic Occultist/Utopian Theorist & Organizer
Delphine de Girardin--Organizer/Writer
Victor Hugo--Writer/Playwright/Theorist
Jules Janin--Novelist/Leftist Polemicist
Alphonse Lamartine--Writer/Polemicist/Leftist Politician
Abbé Felicité de Lamennais--Defrocked Priest & Leftist Polemicist
Eugéne Lassilly--Poet
Froment Meurice--Goldsmith/Designer
Prospere Mérimée--Writer/Historian/Translator/Perpetrator of Hoaxes
Hippolyte Monpou--Composer/songwriter
Napoléon Musard--Composer/Conductor/creator of Romanticist Dances
Alfred de Musset--Writer
Charles Nodier--Organizer/Writer
Éduard Ourliac--Writer/Dandy
Count Ourlioff--??? [possibly Jeunes France-period pseudonym of Ourliac]
Ren[d]uel--Romanticist publisher
Théodore Rousseau--Painter
The Marquis de Saint-Criq--Dandy/Devisor of practical jokes
Henri de Saint-Simon--Proto-Socialist utopian theorist & agitator
George Sand--Organizer/Writer/Theorist
Eugéne Sue--Novelist

Thematic Features
Intertextuality in the  Jeunes-France
On Researching the Bouzingo
Historiography of the  Jeunes-France
Singing and Song in the Bouzingo
On Romanticist Dance
Radical Romanticism and the Surpassing of Theology
Romanticism and the Concept of Time
Translation in the Romanticist & Jeunes-France Communities
Public Spectacle and the Bouzingo
Clothing, Myth, and the  Jeunes-France
The Significance of Naming for the Bouzingo
Multidisciplinarity and Transdisciplinarity in the Jeunes-France
On Romanticist Organizing and Events
The Concept of Friendship in the Jeunes-France
Publication and the Jeunes-France/Bouzingo
Working Collaboratively in the Bouzingo
The  Jeunes-France Household
Speech, Conversation, and Myth in the Bouzingo
The Politics of Language in the  Jeunes-France
The Bouzingo and Gothic-Horror Subculture
The Jeunes-France  and the Satirical Tradition (Villon, Rabelais, Cervantes, Sterne, Peacock)
The  Jeunes-France and Dandyism
The Bouzingo and Libertinism, Évadanism, and Erotica
The Bouzingo as Self-Declared Anachronism
Satire and the  Jeunes-France
The Bouzingo and Theatre
The Jeunes-France and the Romanticist Musical Community
Victor Hugo and the Jeunes-France
Alexandre Dumas, The Petit Cenacle, and Augustus MacKeat
Jeunes-France Poetics
Bouzingo Aesthetics
Utopia, Radical Politics, and the Jeunes-France
Class Politics and the Bouzingo
Romanticism and War
Romanticism and Gender
The Bouzingo as Anachronistic Barbarians
Money, Work, and the  Jeunes-France
The Jeunes-France  and Family
The Bouzingo and Bohemian Subculture

Related Romanticist/Proto-Romanticist/Utopian/Avant-Garde Groups
The Badouillards (France, c. 1830)
The Bohême Doyenné (France, c. 1833-35)
The Arsenal/French Muse (France, c.1824-28)
The Club des Hashihins (France, 1844-1849)
The Cénacle Group (France, c. 1826-30)
The Petit Cénacle (France, 1830-31)
The Évadanistes (France, 1830)
The Saint-Simonistes (France, c.1825-1832)
The Carbonari (Italy/France/Portugal, c. 1810-1915)
The Caveau Moderne (France, 1806-1835/1937)
The Lake School (England, c. 1790-1820)
The Examiner Circle/'Satanic' Romantics (England, c.1815-1825)
The Jockey Club (France, c.1833-1840)
The Nazarine Group (Germany, 1809-1830)

Comparative Studies
The Jeunes-France and Hermeticism/the Occult
The Bouzingo and Gothic Horror
The Jeunes-France and the Byron circle
The Bouzingo, the Flaneur, & Psychogeography
The Jeunes-France and Decadence
The Jeunes-France and Pataphysics
The Bouzingo and Futurism
The Bouzingo and Berlin Dada
The Jeunes-France and Paris Dada/Surrealism
The Bouzingo, Lettrism, & Situationism
The Jeunes-France and Fluxus
The Bouzingo and Neoism
The Jeunes-France and Post-NeoAbsurdism
The Bouzingo and Vernacular Subculture: Heavy Metal, Punk, and Noise